Glossary

Acroterium/acroter: a sculpture at the top of a building or at the corners of a tympanum or a pediment.
1 Akroterion.

Arc: arch or supporting beam / arced: as in arced windows: provided with a (stone) supporting beam at the upper side.
Togen 3

Baluster or banister: profiled column or post, mainly in a balustrade.
Onafhankelijkheidsplein 2 baluster binnentrap (2007).jpg

Basement: the underground storey of a building, wholly or partly below ground level. Also used here: the lowest part of wall or building, the substructure.

Basilica: a building with a nave and more than one aisle, the nave being higher than the aisles.
The upper part of the nave, the clerestory, has large windows, to let light through in the nave.
Basilica
Nave: Central bay of a basilica, higher than the aisles.
Aisle: Secondary bay next to the nave. Light falls in through windows in the façades of the church.
Triforium: Small gallery above the aisles.
Clerestory: Upper part of the nave, with windows to let light through in the nave.
Transept: the area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform
Deambulatorium: aisle which encircles the central part of a church.
Cross vault: selfsupporting vaults, this contrary to ribvaults where the ribs are the supporting elements (see: Basilica).

 

 

Bay: architectural unit / compartment between columns and pillars (or rather between two main construction elements) that divide a building into regular parts. In Suriname’s wooden architecture a bay is recognizable as a plane with a door or window (group).   
Dr.J.F. Nassylaan     Heerenstraat 32     Gravenstraat 34 Hendrikschool     Burenstraat 19 
  Buildings with 3, 5, 7 bays and 10 on the ground floor /12 on the first floor.

Capital: crowning of a pillar, column or pilaster, often embellished.
Gravenstraat 22 Kathedraal kapiteel 2 (2007).JPG

Cheek: a somewhat larger or clearly profiled side or framing of an object, for instance a dormer.
Gravenstraat 14 detail voorgevel (2007).jpg

Console: bracket protruding from a column or wall, supporting a beam or a slab.
Gravenstraat 52-54 console (2007)

Cornice: horizontal strip that gives the finishing touch to an important architectural element. 
   Often it protrudes quite clearly and is profiled or embellished.
Kroonlijst

Demerara windows: Caribbean window type: a louvered window, hinged at the top and pushed up and held with a stick. 
   The lower parts often already sticks out somewhat.
Demerara windows

Dormer: a structural element of a building used to create space in the roof by adding headroom. It protrudes from the plane of a sloping roof of a building. The dormers in Suriname are mainly gable fronted dormers.
Dormer 1Dormer 2Dormer 3

Fanlight: small window over the top of a door.
Gravenstraat 14 Bovenlicht voorzijde (2007).jpg

Frieze: decorated strip or plane between a horizontal support and the cornice.

Hechal: ark in which the Tora scrolls (Jewish law scrolls) are kept.

Pediment: triangular part over the front of a building, a window or an entrance.
Tympanum: inner part of the pediment.
Fronton
Pilaster Pilaster: pillarlike element against a façade; it has no construction function, only a decorative one.

Pillar base: the (profiled) foot of a pillar, pilaster or pier.
Gravenstraat Pastorie Paters Redemptoristen detail (2007).jpg     Gravenstraat 70.jpg

Pillar types:

Pillars


Doric pillars: robust pillars with vertical grooves (or chamfers) and a simple capital, of a round cushion on which a square cover.
Ionic pillars: slender pillars with vertical grooves (or chamfers) that have a sharper profile than in the dorian pillars. The capital is adorned, often with horn-like elements.
Corinthian pillars: Slender pillars with shallow groves (flutes) with an elaborate capital with foliage and scroll decorations. It is the most ornate of the three classical orders.

 

Portico or arcade: a covered gallery supported by columns.

Retable: a decorated structure behind an altar. Used to keep a relic.

Ridge, crest, roof-ridge: the upper horizontal beam of a roofconstruction.

Roofconstructions: 
Roofconstructions
      Pentroof: roof that consists of one sloping part.
      Saddle roof: roof with two sloping surfaces, leaving a triangular gable.
      Mansard roof: a gabled roof with surfaces that are folded out. The lower part thus is steeper than the upper part.
      Half-hip(ped) roof: a gabled roof with a hip above the gable which squares off the top of the gable.
      Pavilion roof or helmroof: a roof made up four planes, two of which share the ridge as the top line.
      Pyramid roof: a roof in which three or more planes meet in one point.

Shingle: a thin flat tile usually made of wood, that is fixed in overlapping rows to make a roof or wall covering.

Stoop: porch or unroofed platform or set of steps at the entrance to a house. The word stoop (from the Dutch stoep) was brought to the New York area by settlers from the Netherlands and is one of the few Dutch words that have survived from the colonial times until now.
Domineestraat 46.jpg

Teba: reading table in the synagoge.

 

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