Frequent question: What explains the cold temperature off the coast of South America?

La Niña is a climate pattern that describes the cooling of surface ocean waters along the tropical west coast of South America. … Together, La Niña and El Niño are the “cold” (La Niña) and “warm” (El Niño) phases of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO is series of linked weather- and ocean-related phenomena.

Why is there cold water along the west coast of South America?

Normal Conditions. Normally, sea surface temperature is about 14°F higher in the Western Pacific than the waters off South America. This is due to the trade winds blowing from east to west along the equator allowing the upwelling of cold, nutrient rich water from deeper levels off the northwest coast of South America.

Why is the East coast of South America dry?

The eastern part of the South Pacific anticyclone influences the climate of most of South America’s west coast, causing stable, subsiding air conditions that yield minimal precipitation. … The ITCZ is responsible for the seasonal character of precipitation in South America’s extensive tropical wet-dry climatic zone.

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What is the specific cause of the cool water temperatures off of Ecuador during normal conditions?

cold, nutrient-rich water from deep below upwells toward the surface. This creates relatively cool water temperatures and therefore prime fishing conditions off the coast of Ecuador and Peru. The diagram below depicts the typical trade wind pattern over the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

What is the El Niño phenomenon?

El Niño is a climate pattern that describes the unusual warming of surface waters in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. El Nino is the “warm phase” of a larger phenomenon called the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). … El Niño was recognized by fishers off the coast of Peru as the appearance of unusually warm water.

What are the effects of La Niña during winter in central North America?

During a La Niña year, winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the South and cooler than normal in the North. La Niña can also lead to a more severe hurricane season. La Niña causes the jet stream to move northward and to weaken over the eastern Pacific.

Is Falkland current warm or cold?

The Falkland Current (also called Malvinas Current or Falklands Current) is a cold water current that flows northward along the Atlantic coast of Patagonia as far north as the mouth of the Río de la Plata.

Why is South America called the Land of Superlatives?

South America is a land of superlatives. It has quite different types of landform, climate and vegetation. There is a small portion of land for farming but this is an agricultural continent. … Tourism is developing as an important economic activity because this continent is the continent of superlatives.

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What is the difference between El Niño and La Niña weather patterns?

El Niño refers to the above-average sea-surface temperatures that periodically develop across the east-central equatorial Pacific. It represents the warm phase of the ENSO cycle. La Niña refers to the periodic cooling of sea-surface temperatures across the east-central equatorial Pacific.

What are the global effects of El Niño?

During an El Niño event, sea surface temperatures across the Pacific can warm by 1–3°F or more for anything between a few months to two years. El Niño impacts weather systems around the globe, triggering predictable disruptions in temperature, rainfall and winds.